What is GRASP?
GRASP(1) stands for General Responsibility Assignment Software Patterns and Principles.
Why it’s important?
Responsibilities Assignment is one of the most important skills in OOP.
The two major problems of relatively large codebases – code is messy and code is coupled. Usually it’s messy because it’s coupled. And often times the cause is wrong responsibilities assignment.
So, GRASP helps to effectively distribute responsibilities between objects.
These patterns and principles are:
- High Cohension
- Information Expert
- Low Coupling
- Protected Variations
- Pure Fabricaton
Controller is an object within the system which handles incoming parameters and delegate work to others.
That’s what “C” in “MVC” for. In Rails we have our Controllers, which handle incoming requests. But, according to GRASP, they should meet a few requirements:
- The controller should delegate the work that needs to be done to other objects
- It only coordinates or controls the activity
- It should not do much work itself
So, in other words, the controller should be skinny. Maybe so skinny it can only process incoming parameters and render results. All other work should be delegated if possible.
Creator is an object, which creates other objects.
If the one class instance have enough data to create other class instance (or form other class instance) – it should proceed with creation.
That’s how you extract responsibilities. By gathering together a related data chunks with methods, required for its processing in a separate class, which instance can be used in current context.
$RAILS_ROOT/lib is your friend at this time. But if this folder grows
tremendously, it’s a clear sign you need a Service Layer(2).
The responsibilities of a given element should be strongly related and highly focused.
But Rails models usually look like a bunch of unrelated methods, just happening to use the data from one database table. So, “Fat Models” strongly violate this principle. Good news there’s plenty of ways(3,4) to decompose them.
Speaking of modules and “Concerns”, it is kind of cheating(5), because you’re not taking responsibility away, you’re hiding it. But it still useful in some cases, and might be a first step on gathering and extracting related pieces of functionality.
The Indirection pattern supports low coupling (and reuse potential) between two elements by assigning the responsibility of mediation between them to an intermediate object.
MVC shows a good example of Indirection. Views don’t know anything about the Models(or shouldn’t anyway), because there’s a Controller between them.
But in a complex system that’s not enough. Ar Controller should not know about the Models either, talking to them through Contexts, or UseCases, or Interactors. And Controller action clearly shouldn’t be using several models at once.
Responsibility should be placed in a class with the most information required to fulfill it’s data.
While this is a good general approach, it better not to be in conflict with High Cohension and not to produce God-classes(aka Fat Models).
Principles of Low Coupling:
- Lower dependencies between classes
- Changes in one class should not impact other classes
- Higher Reuse Potential
In Rails coupling often comes with chain(>2) of before_filters,
ActiveRecord callbacks and stuff like
To reduce a number of these harmful entities, you can use Creator class
and it’s variations. Need to synchronize a creation of two or more
models during single HTTP request? Use an Interactor or UseCase in your
controller and make the process as clear as possible. Ideally, your
models should not know about each other more than they are
Polymorphism & Protected Variations
According to Polymorphism, responsibility of defining the variation of behaviors based on type is assigned to the types for which this variation happens.
The Protected Variations pattern protects elements from the variations on other elements (objects, systems, subsystems) by wrapping the focus of instability with an interface and using polymorphism to create various implementations of this interface.
Sandi Metz excellent quote(6):
No object in your system should have to know the class of any other object in order to know how to behave. Everything is a Duck. Tell the Duck WHAT and the Duck should know HOW.
A Pure Fabrication is a class that does not represent a concept in the problem domain, specially made up to achieve low coupling, high cohesion, and the reuse potential thereof derived (when a solution presented by the Information Expert pattern does not). This kind of class is called “Service” in Domain-driven design.